Pastures & Pastoralism

(ISSN: 2817-3457; CODEN: PPAAC2; DOI: 10.33002/pp) is an international, scientific double blind peer-reviewed open access journal published annually (once a year) online by The Grassroots Institute.

Open Access—free for readers, with article processing charges (APC) paid by authors or their institutions.

High Visibility: Indexing is proposed in the WoS, Scopus and other databases.

Fast Publication: Primary acceptance to the submitted article is given in 1 week time. After consent of author(s), manuscript is peer-reviewed, and a first decision provided to authors in 2-4 weeks after submission.

Recognition of Reviewers: The reviewers who provide timely, thorough peer-review reports receive vouchers entitling them to a discount on the APC of their next publication in the journal, in appreciation of the work done. Reviewers also receive Certificate for their voluntary service.

VOLUME 1 (2023) | Pastures & Pastoralism

Gradually, pasturelands are being converted into other land uses or enclosed for exclusive uses under various national laws or policies. Resilience of pastoralist communities to the changing environments – ecological, economic and political – has great potential to protecting and conserving the pastureland landscapes or waterscapes. Such resilience is more talked in context of climate change and its impact on the herder communities surviving in marginal environments. In the view of widespread regional and national policy failures and modernity-catalyzed societal rejection of transhumance and nomadic pastoralism, International Year of Rangelands and Pastoralists 2026 declared by the United Nations General Assembly is a grand opportunity for all to revitalize the least-external-input driven systems of livestock raising and mobility across the continents. This international blind peer-review journal, ‘Pastures & Pastoralism’, will contribute to the science, policy and practice across the world by providing a novel platform to seasoned, budding and young scientists, experts and practitioners, including the pastoral community members.

VOLUME 1, (2023)

M – 00338Research Article

Camel Systems and Pastoralists’ Lifestyle in Semi-Deserts and Mountains: Constraints and Challenges

Ayman Balla Mustafa*1, Asim Faraz2

1Therapeutic Nutrition Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, Misurata University, P.O. Box 2478, Misurata, Libya.

Email: | ORCID:

2Department of Livestock and Poultry Production, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan.

Email: | ORCID:

*Corresponding author

Pastures & Pastoralism, 01, 93-113. Doi:

Received: 18 November 2022

Reviewed: 28 December 2022

Revised: 21 February 2023

Accepted: 19 March 2023

Published: 07 April 2023


Review Reports

Editing Work

Ethical Declarations

Download Full Paper [PDF]

Download Full Paper [XML]


No. of Abstract Views:

No. of Full Paper Views:

No. of Paper Downloads:


Camels are vital to the daily life of all desert dwellers, especially Bedouins, for whom they form a source of food, a means of transportation and recreation. To appreciate the unique contribution that Arabian camels make towards the community life and the history of the desert lands, in this paper, the pastoral production systems observed across three major regions - Butana, Kordofan and Darfur - are discussed. The field survey based study was conducted from August 2011 to May 2014 using structured interview method to determine the limitations and challenges faced by camel pastoral community in main camel production regions of Sudan. The results revealed that the average of calving interval was 30 months; male camel is rutting for 3 months during rainy season. She-camel gives birth to 6-8 calves throughout the life. The average milk yield was 3 liters per day with the lactation period extended to more than 10 months. The calf is weaned for 10 months or more. Social prestige and continuity of traditional heritage are the major reasons for keeping animals rather than economic revenue. However, it was found that the security issues are limiting camel breeding practices and pastoralists’ movement in the semi-desert and mountain regions. Internal conflicts between farmers and pastoralists that often develop into tribal wars also affected pastoral production systems. Such constraints in addition to the lack of government support and favorable policies present major challenges to camel pastoral system in the region.


Challenges; Camel; Mountain; Pastoralist; Pastoralism; Sudan


Abdelrahman, Y. M., Eisa, M. O., Mustafa, A. B., & Salih, A. M. (2011). Constraints of Camel pastoralists

Abusin, M. E. (1990). Literature survey of baseline information and Profile of central. UNDP,

Ahmed, M. Y., & Iqbal, A. (2012). Farmers’ Attitude towards Interventions Regarding Camel Calf

Alemayehu, G. (2001). Breeding program and evaluation of semen characteristics of camels in

Al-Khouri, F., & Majid, A. M. (2000). Camels in Sudan: Ecology, Production Systems, Characterization

Ali, Y. H., & Majid, M. A. (2006). Epidemiology of camel calf diarrhea in Sudan: seroprevalence

Aljammah, R. S., Almutari, F. A., Alsayied, I., & Ayadi, M. (2012). Effect of the production system,

Bakheit, S. A., Majid, A. M. A., & Nikhala, A. M. (2008). Camels (Camelus dromedarius) under pastoral

Darosa, A. E. M. (2005). Studies on Some Camel Production Traits and Health in Butana Area,

Eisa, M. O., & Mustafa, A. B. (2011). Production Systems and Dairy Production of Sudan Camel

Farah, K. O., Nyariki, D. M., Ngugi, R. K., Noor, I. M., & Guliye A. Y. (2004). The Somali and the

Faye, B., Abdelhadi, O. M. A., Ahmed, A. I., & Bakheit, S. A. (2011). Camel in Sudan: future prospects.

Helen, Y., Osman, A., Abusin, A. M., Asher, M., & Egemi, O. (2009).  Livelihoods, Power, and

Idriss, B. (2003). Marketing of camels in the Soudan, 1st Ed. Camel Applied Research and

Khorchani, T., Hammadi, M., & Moslah, M. (2004). An effective technique for calve safeguards

MARF (2007). Statistical report of Sudanese livestock. Ministry of Animal Resources and

MOARF (2004). Estimates of animal population (2000-2004). Ministry of Animal Resources

Mohammed, I. (2000). Study of the integration of the dromedary in the smallholder crop-livestock

Njiru, G. K. (1993). Economics of camel production. In: S.P. Simpkin (ed.), Camel Production. A

Raziq, A., Iqbal, M. Y., & Khan, M. S. (2008). Role of camel in the pastoral economy of marri

Schwartz, H. J. (1992). Productive performance and productivity of dromedaries (Camelus

Tezera, G. (1998). Characterization of camel husbandry practices and camel milk and meat

Wilson, R. T. (1989). The nutritional requirements of the camel. CIHEAM Options Méditerranéennes,

Yagil, R. (2006). Reproductive processes in camels (Camelus dromedarius). Israel J. of Veterinary

Zeleke, Z. M. (2007). Non-genetic factors affecting milk yield and milk composition of traditionally

APA Style

Mustafa, A. B., & Faraz, A. (2023). Camel Systems and Pastoralists’ Lifestyle in Semi-Deserts and Mountains: Constraints and Challenges. Pastures & Pastoralism, 01, 93-113.

Harvard Style

Mustafa, A.B. and Faraz, A. (2023). Camel Systems and Pastoralists’ Lifestyle in Semi-Deserts and Mountains: Constraints and Challenges. Pastures & Pastoralism, 01: 93-113.

ACS Style

Mustafa A.B., Faraz, A. Camel Systems and Pastoralists’ Lifestyle in Semi-Deserts and Mountains: Constraints and Challenges. Pastures & Pastoralism, 2023, 01, 93-113.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mustafa, Ayman Balla, Faraz, Asim. 2023. “Camel Systems and Pastoralists’ Lifestyle in Semi-Deserts and Mountains: Constraints and Challenges”. Pastures & Pastoralism, 01: 93-113.

AAA Style

Mustafa, Ayman Balla and Asim Faraz. 2023. “Camel Systems and Pastoralists’ Lifestyle in Semi-Deserts and Mountains: Constraints and Challenges”. Pastures & Pastoralism, 01: 93-113.

Cite Factor:
Research Gate:
Google Scholar:

Internet Archive:


© 2023 by the author(s). Licensee Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( We allow to freely share (copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format) and adapt (remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially) with a legal code:

Creative Commons Licence
Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources by The Grassroots Institute is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Based on a work at

We support:

International Year of Rangelands and Pastoralists


    Executive Chief Editor

    Dr. Hasrat Arjjumend

    Senior Fellow

    Centre for International Sustainable Development Law, Canada

    Associate Editor

    Ms. Aayushi Malhotra

    PhD Scholar, UGC-Senior Research Fellow

    Birla Institute of Technology and Sciences-Pilani, Rajasthan, India

    Editorial Board

    * Dr. Hijaba Ykhanbai (Mongolia)

    * Dr. Saverio Krätli (Germany)

    * Dr. Ayman Balla Mustafa Yassien (Libya)

    * Dr. Nma Bida Alhaji (Nigeria)

    * Prof. Dr. Josiane Manirakiza (Burundi)

    * Dr. D. K. Sadana (India)

    * Dr. Smruti Smita Mohapatra (India)

    * Dr. Avik Ray (India)

Related Articles

Go to Top