Pastures & Pastoralism

(ISSN: 2817-3457; CODEN: PPAAC2; DOI: 10.33002/pp) is an international, scientific double blind peer-reviewed open access journal published annually (once a year) online by The Grassroots Institute.

Open Access—free for readers, with article processing charges (APC) paid by authors or their institutions.

High Visibility: Indexing is proposed in the WoS, Scopus and other databases.

Fast Publication: Primary acceptance to the submitted article is given in 1 week time. After consent of author(s), manuscript is peer-reviewed, and a first decision provided to authors in 2-4 weeks after submission.

Recognition of Reviewers: The reviewers who provide timely, thorough peer-review reports receive vouchers entitling them to a discount on the APC of their next publication in the journal, in appreciation of the work done. Reviewers also receive Certificate for their voluntary service.

VOLUME 1 (2023) | Pastures & Pastoralism

Gradually, pasturelands are being converted into other land uses or enclosed for exclusive uses under various national laws or policies. Resilience of pastoralist communities to the changing environments – ecological, economic and political – has great potential to protecting and conserving the pastureland landscapes or waterscapes. Such resilience is more talked in context of climate change and its impact on the herder communities surviving in marginal environments. In the view of widespread regional and national policy failures and modernity-catalyzed societal rejection of transhumance and nomadic pastoralism, International Year of Rangelands and Pastoralists 2026 declared by the United Nations General Assembly is a grand opportunity for all to revitalize the least-external-input driven systems of livestock raising and mobility across the continents. This international blind peer-review journal, ‘Pastures & Pastoralism’, will contribute to the science, policy and practice across the world by providing a novel platform to seasoned, budding and young scientists, experts and practitioners, including the pastoral community members.

VOLUME 1, (2023)

M – 00334Research Article

Livelihood Transformation among the Borana Pastoralists of Dhas District, Southern Ethiopia

Dejene Alemayehu*1, Yetebarek Hizekeal2, Tesfatsion Petros3, Hasrat Arjjumend4

1Institute of Indigenous Studies, Dilla University, Dilla, Ethiopia.

Email: | ORCID:

2Institute of Indigenous Studies, Dilla University, Dilla, Ethiopia.

Email: | ORCID: 0000-0003-3480-7235

3Institute of Indigenous Studies, Dilla University, Dilla, Ethiopia.

Email: | ORCID:

4The Grassroots Institute, 548 Jean Talon Ouest, Montreal, QC, Canada.

Email: | ORCID:

*Corresponding author

Pastures & Pastoralism, 01, 15-29. Doi:

Received: 09 December 2022

Reviewed: 09 January 2023

Revised: 31 January 2023

Accepted: 08 February 2023

Published: 07 April 2023


Review Reports

Editing Work

Ethical Declarations

Download Full Paper [PDF]

Download Full Paper [XML]


No. of Abstract Views:

No. of Full Paper Views:

No. of Paper Downloads:


This study intends to examine the triggers of livelihoods transformation among the Borana pastoralists of Dhas district in Borana zone, southern Ethiopia. The Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) tools, such as key informant interviews and focused group discussions, were used to explore the perceptions of local communities on the causes of livelihood transformation and its impact on the well-being of pastoralists and their overall survival. Purposive sampling was used to administer key informant interviews and FGDs. The findings of this study indicate that the foremost causes of livelihoods transformation in Dhas district include frequent drought and environmental degradation, pastoralists’ sedentarisation policies and conflict over boundary and grazing lands. Previously, pastoralism livelihood system was the most viable strategy in the study area providing sustainable livestock products, while, at the same time, protecting water and rangeland resources and safeguarding environment warrant the Borana pastoralist’s well-being. However, with the changing livelihood dynamics, the Borana’s pastoral system underwent major upheavals, enfeebling the pragmatism of these practices. Therefore, this study concludes that a comprehensive development strategy for supporting pastoral livelihood becomes the need of the hour to guide the efforts of all relevant stakeholders operating in pastoral areas.


Livelihood; Diversification; Drought; Borana pastoralists


Abbink, J., Kelly, A. Dereje, D., Elliot, F., Echi, G., John, G., Shauna, L., Jean, L., Hussein, A., John, M.,

Abdulahi, M. (2005). The changing nature of pastoral conflicts in south-eastern Ethiopia: The case of the

Abdulahi, M. (2007). The Legal Status of the Communal Land Holding System in Ethiopia: The Case of

Alemayehu, D., & Doda, Z. (2020). Indigenous Environmental Knowledge of Borana Pastoralists.

Alemayehu, D., & Hizekeal, Y. (2022). The Relevance and Practices of Indigenous Weather Forecasting

Avis, W. (2018). Rebuilding pastoralist livelihoods during and after conflict. K4D Helpdesk Report 421.

Dhas District Pastoralist Development Office (2019). Unpublished annual Report. Dhas, Ethiopia.

Degen, A. A. (2011). Transformation of Borana from nomadic pastoralists to agropastoralists and shift of

FAO (2014). Pastoralism in Africa’s dry lands. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Galaty, J. (2013). The Collapsing Platform for Pastoralism: Land Sales and Land Loss in Kajiado County,

Helland, J. (2006). Pastoral Land Tenure in Ethiopia. Colloque international ‘Les frontières de la question

Little, P. D. (ed.) (2016). Resilience and risk in pastoralist areas: Recent trends in diversified and

Mkutu, K. (n.d.). Pastoralist Conflict, Governance and Small Arms in North Rift, North East Africa.

Nori, M. (2021). The evolving interface between pastoralism and uncertainty: reflecting on cases from

Odhiambo, M. (2012). Impact of Conflict on Pastoral Communities’ Resilience in the Horn of Africa: Case

Pavanello, S. (2009). Pastoralists’ Vulnerability in the Horn of Africa: Exploring Political Marginalization,

Pavanello, S., & Levine, S. (2011). Natural resources management in Kenya-Ethiopia border areas.

Peter, L., Roy, B., John, M., & Getachew, G. (2010). Future Scenarios for Pastoral Development in

Solomon, D. (2006). Pastoralism and Development in Ethiopia. Ethiopian Economic Association, the

Temesgen, A. K. (2010). Climate change to conflict. Lessons from Southern Ethiopia and Northern Kenya.

Watson, D. (2006). Life beyond pastoralism: Livelihood diversification opportunities for pastoralists in

APA Style

Alemayehu, D., Hizekeal, Y., Petros, T., & Arjjumend, H. (2023). Livelihood Transformation among the Borana Pastoralists of Dhas District, Southern Ethiopia. Pastures & Pastoralism, 01, 15-29.

Harvard Style

Alemayehu, D., Hizekeal, Y., Petros, T. and Arjjumend, H. (2023). Livelihood Transformation among the Borana Pastoralists of Dhas District, Southern Ethiopia. Pastures & Pastoralism, 01: 15-29. Doi:

ACS Style

Alemayehu D., Hizekeal Y., Petros T., Arjjumend H. Livelihood Transformation among the Borana Pastoralists of Dhas District, Southern Ethiopia. Pastures & Pastoralism, 2023, 01, 15-29.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alemayehu, Dejene, Hizekeal, Yetebarek, Petros, Tesfatsion, Arjjumend, Hasrat. 2023. “Livelihood Transformation among the Borana Pastoralists of Dhas District, Southern Ethiopia”. Pastures & Pastoralism, 01: 15-29.

AAA Style

Alemayehu, Dejene, Yetebarek Hizekeal, Tesfatsion Petros and Hasrat Arjjumend. 2023. “Livelihood Transformation among the Borana Pastoralists of Dhas District, Southern Ethiopia”. Pastures & Pastoralism, 01: 15-29.

Cite Factor:
Research Gate:
Google Scholar:

Internet Archive:


© 2023 by the author(s). Licensee Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( We allow to freely share (copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format) and adapt (remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially) with a legal code:

Creative Commons Licence
Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources by The Grassroots Institute is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Based on a work at

We support:

International Year of Rangelands and Pastoralists


    Executive Chief Editor

    Dr. Hasrat Arjjumend

    Senior Fellow

    Centre for International Sustainable Development Law, Canada

    Associate Editor

    Ms. Aayushi Malhotra

    PhD Scholar, UGC-Senior Research Fellow

    Birla Institute of Technology and Sciences-Pilani, Rajasthan, India

    Editorial Board

    * Dr. Hijaba Ykhanbai (Mongolia)

    * Dr. Saverio Krätli (Germany)

    * Dr. Ayman Balla Mustafa Yassien (Libya)

    * Dr. Nma Bida Alhaji (Nigeria)

    * Prof. Dr. Josiane Manirakiza (Burundi)

    * Dr. D. K. Sadana (India)

    * Dr. Smruti Smita Mohapatra (India)

    * Dr. Avik Ray (India)

Related Articles

Go to Top