Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources

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VOLUME 7, ISSUE 1 (APRIL 2024) | Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources

Coordinated and published by The Grassroots Institute, the Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources (GJNR) is an international journal dedicated to the latest advancements in natural resources throughout the world. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists, social scientists, policy analysts, managers and practitioners (on all academic and professional levels) all over the world to promote, discuss and share various new issues and developments in different arenas of natural resources.


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M – 00379Research Article

Modelling Habitat Suitability and Distribution of the Endemic Mindanao Horned Frog (Pelobatrachus stejnegeri) and its Response to Changing Climate

Neil Jun Sala Lobite

Department of Forest Biological Sciences, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of the Philippines – Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines, 4031.

Email: | ORCID:

Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 7(1): 123-137. Doi:

Received: 12 February 2024

Reviewed: 17 April 2024

Provisionally Accepted: 19 April 2024

Revised: 24 April 2024

Finally Accepted: 25 April 2024

Published: 30 April 2024


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Climate change is already affecting biodiversity, with special concern to endemics whose range is restricted and limited. This study focuses on the Mindanao horned frog (Pelobatrachus stejnegeri), an endemic species to the Philippines, susceptible to climate-induced habitat changes. Using MaxEnt species distribution model (SDM), the current and future (year 2050 projections) habitat suitability and distribution of P. stejnegeri were modelled. Results showed that annual mean temperature, elevation, and annual precipitation were the environmental variables having the highest influence on P. stejnegeri's distribution. The model predicts a significant range contraction under representative concentration pathways (RCP) future scenarios (RCP 2.6 and RCP 8.5), with a more pronounced decrease in distribution (31.72%) under the high emission scenario (RCP 8.5). These findings emphasize the vulnerability of P. stejnegeri to climate change and highlight the importance of integrating SDM into conservation and management strategies to protect endemic species under changing climatic conditions.


Mindanao horned frog; Species distribution model; Climate change; Species distribution


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Harvard Style

Lobite, N.J.S. (2024). Modelling Habitat Suitability and Distribution of the Endemic Mindanao Horned Frog (Pelobatrachus stejnegeri) and its Response to Changing Climate. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 7(1): 123-137 Doi:

APA Style

Lobite, N.J.S. (2024). Modelling Habitat Suitability and Distribution of the Endemic Mindanao Horned Frog (Pelobatrachus stejnegeri) and its Response to Changing Climate. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 7(1), 123-137.

ACS Style

Lobite N.J.S. Modelling Habitat Suitability and Distribution of the Endemic Mindanao Horned Frog (Pelobatrachus stejnegeri) and its Response to Changing Climate. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 2024, 7 (1), 123-137.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lobite, Neil Jun Sala. 2024. “Modelling Habitat Suitability and Distribution of the Endemic Mindanao Horned Frog (Pelobatrachus stejnegeri) and its Response to Changing Climate”. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 7 no. 1: 123-137.

AAA Style

Lobite, Neil Jun Sala. 2024. “Modelling Habitat Suitability and Distribution of the Endemic Mindanao Horned Frog (Pelobatrachus stejnegeri) and its Response to Changing Climate”. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 7 (1): 123-137

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