Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources

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Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources

Coordinated and published by The Grassroots Institute, the Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources (GJNR) is an international journal dedicated to the latest advancements in natural resources throughout the world. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists, social scientists, policy analysts, managers and practitioners (on all academic and professional levels) all over the world to promote, discuss and share various new issues and developments in different arenas of natural resources.


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M – 00319Research Article

Impact of Variation in Monsoonal Rainfall and Temperature on Paddy Production and its Adaptive Strategies: A Case Study from Bhaktapur District of Nepal

Rajesh Shob1, Rajeev Joshi*2

1School of Environmental Science and Management (SchEMS), Affiliated to Pokhara University, Devkota Sadak, Mid-Baneshwor, Kathmandu, Nepal.

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2College of Natural Resource Management, Faculty of Forestry, Agriculture and Forestry University, Katari-56310, Udayapur, Nepal; Amity Global Education (Lord Buddha College), CTEVT, Kathmandu-44600, Nepal.

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*Corresponding author

Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 5(4): 99-118. Doi:

Received: 03 October 2022

Reviewed: 29 October 2022

Provisionally Accepted: 31 October 2022

Revised: 13 November 2022

Finally Accepted: 30 November 2022

Published: 31 December 2022


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This study was carried out to assess the impact of climate change on paddy yield in Bhaktapur, Nepal. The study compared the summer rainfall variability, summer temperature variability, and farmers' perception of rainfall and temperature changes over a 30-year period. A household survey of 420 houses was conducted to collect information supplemented by meteorological data from the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology (DoHM). Following this, significant increases and decreases in temperature and rainfall were observed on annual and seasonal time scales, respectively. The obtained result shows the annual precipitation trend of the study area is increasing at a rate of 0.24 mm yr-1. The linear trend analysis of the pre-monsoon indicates that the rainfall is increasing at the rate of 0.18 mm yr-1 and the monsoon shows the rainfall is increasing at the rate of 0.57 mm yr-1, whereas the post-monsoon rainfall is decreasing at the rate of 0.02 mm yr-1. The biggest changes in precipitation were observed during the monsoon season. The monsoon precipitation trend in the time series was found to be increasing at a rate of 0.57 mm yr-1. This variation in monsoon rainfall is clearly unfavorable for the agriculture system of the study area. When these recent changes in the temperature and precipitation were compared over 30-year time series data from the weather station, it is apparent that the climate of the study area exhibits fluctuation over time, many of the changes being very erratic. As per the data, all kinds of temperatures are being increased annually. According to the linear trend shown below, average annual temperature, minimum temperature, and maximum temperature are increasing at rates of 0.038°C yr-1, 0.054°C yr-1, and 0.021°C yr-1, respectively. The results show that future climate change in Nepal, including higher temperatures and erratic rainfall, might have a negative impact on paddy productivity and yield in the study area.


Monsoon; Precipitation; Paddy; Temperature; Yield


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Harvard Style

Shob, R. and Joshi, R. (2022). Impact of Variation in Monsoonal Rainfall and Temperature on Paddy Production and its Adaptive Strategies: A Case Study from Bhaktapur District of Nepal. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 5(4): 99-118. Doi:

APA Style

Shob, R., & Joshi, R. (2022). Impact of Variation in Monsoonal Rainfall and Temperature on Paddy Production and its Adaptive Strategies: A Case Study from Bhaktapur District of Nepal. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 5(4), 99-118.

ACS Style

Shob R., Joshi R. Impact of Variation in Monsoonal Rainfall and Temperature on Paddy Production and its Adaptive Strategies: A Case Study from Bhaktapur District of Nepal. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 2022, 5 (4), 99-118.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shob, Rajesh, Joshi, Rajeev. 2022. “Impact of Variation in Monsoonal Rainfall and Temperature on Paddy Production and its Adaptive Strategies: A Case Study from Bhaktapur District of Nepal”. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 5 no. 4: 99-118.

AAA Style

Shob, Rajesh and Rajeev Joshi. 2022. “Impact of Variation in Monsoonal Rainfall and Temperature on Paddy Production and its Adaptive Strategies: A Case Study from Bhaktapur District of Nepal”. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 5 (4): 99-118.

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