Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources

(ISSN:2581-6853; CODEN: GJNRA9; DOI: 10.33002/nr2581.6853) is an international, scientific double blind peer-reviewed open access journal published 3 times a year online by The Grassroots Institute.

Impact Factor: exaly

Open Access—free for readers, with article processing charges (APC) paid by authors or their institutions.

High Visibility: Indexed in the SCOPUS and Web of Science (Zoological Record, Biosis Previews, Biological Abstracts, Biosis Full Coverage Unique, and CAB Abstracts) and other databases.

Fast Publication: Primary acceptance to the submitted article is given in 1 week time. After consent of author(s), manuscript is peer-reviewed and a first decision provided to authors in 2-4 weeks after submission.

Recognition of Reviewers: The reviewers who provide timely, thorough peer-review reports receive vouchers entitling them to a discount on the APC of their next publication in the journal, in appreciation of the work done. Reviewers also receive Certificate for their voluntary service.

Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources

Coordinated and published by The Grassroots Institute, the Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources (GJNR) is an international journal dedicated to the latest advancements in natural resources throughout the world. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists, social scientists, policy analysts, managers and practitioners (on all academic and professional levels) all over the world to promote, discuss and share various new issues and developments in different arenas of natural resources.


Download Full Issue [PDF]

M – 00314Review Article

Applying the Landscape Services Concept in Landscape Research: A Review

Sining Zhang

Department of Landscape Architecture, School of Architecture, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 611756, Xipu Campus, Chengdu, Sichuan Province, P. R. China.

E-mail: | ORCID:

Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 5(4): 1-18. Doi:

Received: 30 August 2022

Reviewed: 29 September 2022

Provisionally Accepted: 10 October 2022

Revised: 25 October 2022

Finally Accepted: 24 November 2022

Published: 31 December 2022


Review Reports

Editing Work

Ethical Declarations

Download Full Paper [PDF]

Download Full Paper [XML]


No. of Abstract Views:

No. of Full Paper Views:

No. of Paper Downloads:


Considerable attention has been given to the concept of landscape services since the development of research on ecosystem services. However, from the landscape perspective, there are numerous challenges and unanswered issues regarding landscape services. The objective of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review about the state-of-the-art concept of landscape services and its corresponding approaches while trying to set up a foundation for further discussions. First, the definitions and classifications of ecosystem services and landscape services are presented. Second, the relationship between ecosystem services and landscape services, and the studies that integrate ecosystem services into landscape research, are discussed. Finally, an overview is provided concerning research conducted at multiple scales, and the various assessment and quantification methods used for mapping and studying landscape services, even though there are many challenges in establishing a comprehensive approach for such quantification and mapping.


Landscape services; Ecosystem services; Classification; Quantifying and mapping


Aertsen, W., Kint, V., Muys, B. and Van Orshoven, J. (2012). Effects of scale and scaling in

Ahern, J., Cilliers, S. and Niemelä, J. (2014). The concept of ecosystem services in adaptive

Antrop, M. (2000). Background concepts for integrated landscape analysis. Agriculture,

Arjjumend, H., Shibata, S. and Fakana, S. (2018). Ecosystem Services of Forest Ecosystem in

Bastian, O., Grunewald, K., Syrbe, R.U., Walz, U. and Wende, W. (2014). Landscape services:

Bernard, E., Barbosa, L. and Carvalho, R. (2011). Participatory GIS in a sustainable use reserve

Boix-Fayos, C., Boerboom, L.G.J., Janssen, R., Martínez-Mena, M., Almagro, M., Pérez-

Boyd, J. and Banzhaf, S. (2007). What are ecosystem services? The need for standardized

Briner, S., Huber, R., Bebi, P., Elkin, C., Schmatz, D.R. and Grêt-Regamey, A. (2013). Trade-

Burkhard, B., Kroll, F., Müller, F. and Windhorst, W. (2009). Landscapes’ capacities to provide

Burkhard, B., Kroll, F., Nedkov, S. and Müller, F. (2012). Mapping ecosystem service supply,

Burkhard, B., Müller, A., Müller, F., Grescho, V., Anh, Q., Arida, G., Bustamante, J.,  Victor J.,

Cairns, J. (1997). Protecting the delivery of ecosystem services. Ecosystem Health, 3(3): 185-

Carver, S., Watson, A., Waters, T., Matt, R., Gunderson, K. and Davis, B. (2009). Developing

Costanza, R. (2008). Ecosystem services: Multiple classification systems are needed. Biological

Costanza, R., D´Arge, R., De Groot, R.S., Farber, S., Grasso, M., Hannon, B., Limburg, K.,

Costanza, R., De Groot, R. S., Braat, L., Kubiszewski, I., Fioramonti, L., Sutton, P., Farber, S.

Daily, G.C. (1997). Nature’s Services: Societal Dependence on Natural Ecosystems.

De Groot, R.S. (1992). Functions of nature : evaluation of nature in environmental planning,

De Groot, R. S., Alkemade, R., Braat, L., Hein, L. and Willemen, L. (2010). Challenges in

De Groot, R.S. and Hein, L. (2007). Concept and valuation of landscape functions at different

De Groot, R.S., Wilson, M.A. and Boumans, R.M.J. (2002). A typology for the classification,

Duarte, G.T., Santos, P.M., Cornelissen, T.G., Ribeiro, M.C. and Paglia, A.P. (2018). The effects

Ehrlich, P. and Ehrlich, A. (1981). Extinction: the causes and consequences of the disappearance

Fagerholm, N., Käyhkö, N., Ndumbaro, F. and Khamis, M. (2012). Community stakeholders’

Fang, X., Wenwu, Z. and Bojie Fu, J.D. (2015). Landscape service capability , landscape service

Fisher, B., Turner, R.K. and Morling, P. (2009). Defining and classifying ecosystem services for

Gulickx, M.M.C., Verburg, P.H., Stoorvogel, J.J., Kok, K. and Veldkamp, A. (2013). Mapping

Haines-Young, R. and Potschin, M. (2009). Methodologies for defining and assessing ecosystem

Haines-Young, R. and Potschin, M. (2010a). Proposal for a common international classification

Haines-Young, R. and Potschin, M. (2010b). The links between biodiversity, ecosystem services

Hein, L., van Koppen, K., De Groot, R.S. and van Ierland, E.C. (2006). Spatial scales,

Hermann, A., Kuttner, M., Hainz-Renetzeder, C., Konkoly-Gyuró, É., Tirászi, Á., Brandenburg,

Kenter, J.O., Hyde, T., Christie, M. and Fazey, I. (2011). The importance of deliberation in

Kienast, F., Bolliger, J., Potschin, M., De Groot, R. S., Verburg, P. H., Heller, I., Wascher, D.

Lautenbach, S., Kugel, C., Lausch, A. and Seppelt, R. (2011). Analysis of historic changes in

Leones, J. (1994). Landscape Services: An Urban Agricultural Sector. Agribusiness, 10(1): 13–

Liquete, C., Kleeschulte, S., Dige, G., Maes, J., Grizzetti, B., Olah, B. and Zulian, G. (2015).

MA (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment) (2005). Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis.

Mander, Ü., Helming, K. and Wiggering, H. (2007). Multifunctional land use: meeting future

Martín de Agar, P., Ortega, M. and de Pablo, C.L. (2016). A procedure of landscape services

McCauley, D.J. (2006). Selling out on nature. Nature, 443: 27. DOI: 

Meyer, B.C. and Grabaum, R. (2008). MULBO: Model framework for Multicriteria Landscape

Mina, M., Bugmann, H., Cordonnier, T., Irauschek, F., Klopcic, M., Pardos, M. and Cailleret, M.

Müller, F., Jones, K.B., Krauze, K., Li, B.L., Victorov, S., Petrosillo, I. and Zurlini, G. (2008).

Nelson, E., Mendoza, G., Regetz, J., Polasky, S., Tallis, H., Cameron, D.R., Chan, Kai M.A.,

Niemelä J., Saarela S-R., Söderman T., Kopperoinen L., Yli-Pelkonen V., Väre S., K.D.J.

Nowak, A. and Grunewald, K. (2018). Landscape sustainability in terms of landscape services in

Odum, E.P. and Odum, H.T. (1972). Natural areas as necessary components of man’s total

Serna-Chavez, H.M., Schulp, C.J.E., Van Bodegom, P.M., Bouten, W., Verburg, P.H. and

Sherrouse, B.C., Clement, J.M. and Semmens, D.J. (2011). A GIS application for assessing,

Sun, J., Liu, L., Müller, K., Zander, P., Ren, G., Yin, G. and Hu, Y. (2018). Surplus or deficit?

Syrbe, R.U. and Walz, U. (2012). Spatial indicators for the assessment of ecosystem services:

TEEB (2010). The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity: ecological and economic

Termorshuizen, J.W. and Opdam, P. (2009). Landscape services as a bridge between landscape

Ungaro, F., Zasada, I. and Piorr, A. (2014). Mapping landscape services, spatial synergies and

Vallés-Planells, M., Galiana, F. and Van Eetvelde, V. (2014). A Classification of Landscape

Wang, Y. and Dai, E. (2020). Spatial-temporal changes in ecosystem services and the trade-off

Westerink, J., Opdam, P., van Rooij, S. and Steingröver, E. (2017). Landscape services as

Willemen, L., Veldkamp, A., Verburg, P. H., Hein, L. and Leemans, R. (2012). A multi-scale

Willemen, L. (2010). Mapping and modelling multifunctional landscapes. Wageningen

Wu, J. (2013). Landscape sustainability science: Ecosystem services and human well-being in

Wu, J., Feng, Z., Gao, Y. and Peng, J. (2013). Hotspot and relationship identification in multiple

Young, R.F. (2010). Managing municipal green space for ecosystem services. Urban Forestry &

Zhang, S. & Muñoz Ramírez, F. (2019). Assessing and mapping ecosystem services to support

Harvard Style

Zhang, S. (2022). Applying the Landscape Services Concept in Landscape Research: A Review. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 5(4): 1-18. Doi:

APA Style

Zhang, S. (2022). Applying the Landscape Services Concept in Landscape Research: A Review. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 5(4), 1-18.

ACS Style

Zhang S. Applying the Landscape Services Concept in Landscape Research: A Review. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 2022, 5 (4), 1-18.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Sining. 2022. “Applying the Landscape Services Concept in Landscape Research: A Review”. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 5 no. 4: 1-18.

AAA Style

Zhang, Sining. 2022. “Applying the Landscape Services Concept in Landscape Research: A Review”. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 5 (4): 1-18.

Cite Factor:
Research Gate:
Google Scholar:
Harvard Dataverse:

Internet Archive:


© 2022 by the author(s). Licensee Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( We allow to freely share (copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format) and adapt (remix, transform, and build upon the material for any purpose, even commercially) with a legal code:

Creative Commons Licence
Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources by The Grassroots Institute is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Based on a work at

Technical Advisory Board

    Technical Advisory Board

    * Prof. Dr. Hans-Peter Nachtnebel (Austria)

    * Prof. Dr. Parviz Koohafkan (Italy)

    * Prof. Dr. Sándor Kerekes (Hungary)

    * Prof. Dr. Hafiz Muminjanov (Italy/Tajikistan)

    * Prof. Dr. Uygun Aksoy (Turkey)

    * Prof. Dr. Ahmad Mahdavi (Iran)

    * Dr. Walter Fernandez (India)

    * Prof. Dr. Gordana Đurić (Bosnia i Herzegovina)

    * Prof. Dr. Ermek Baibagyshov (Kyrgyz Repbulic)

    * Prof. Dr. Eng. Gabriela Teodorescu (Romania)

    Executive (Chief) Editor

    * Dr. Hasrat Arjjumend (Canada)

    Associate Editors

    * Dr. Usongo Patience Abaufei (Cameroon)

    * Ms. Areej Sabir (Pakistan)

    Editorial Board

    * Prof. Dr. Suren N. Kulshreshtha (Canada)

    * Dr. Simon J. Lambert (Canada)

    * Dr. Jason MacLean (Canada)

    * Dr. Yuliya Rashchupkina (Canada)

    * Dr. Richard leBrasseur (Canada)

    * Prof. Dr. Bartha Dénes, DSc (Hungary)

    * Dr. Kollányi László (Hungary)

    * Dr. Krisztián Katona (Hungary)

    * Dr. Marcos Frommel (Uruguay/Argentina)

    * Dr. Olena Khrusch (Ukraine)

    * Prof. Dr. Tetiana Fedoniuk (Ukraine)

    * Dr. Evgeniya Kopitsa (Ukraine)

    * Dr. Anastasiia Zymaroieva (Ukraine)

    * Dr. Nadiia Yorkina (Ukraine)

    * Dr. Alla Pecheniuk (Ukraine)

    * Dr. Marius Warg Næss (Norway)

    * Dr. Stefano Duglio (Italy)

    * Prof. Dr. Maria-Mihaela Antofie (Romania)

    * Prof. habil. Dr. Cristiana Radulescu (Romania)

    * Dr. Ioana-Daniela Dulama (Romania)

    * Dr. Mihaela Stet (Romania)

    * Dr. Mirela Ranta (Romania)

    * Dr. Radoslaw J. Walkowiak (Poland)

    * Dr. Shafi Noor Islam (Brunei)

    * Dr. Wenresti G. Gallardo (Oman)

    * Dr. G. Prabhakara Rao (India)

    * Dr. Omprakash Madguni (India)

    * Dr. Y. Vasudeva Rao (India)

    * Prof. Dr. Sanjay-Swami (India)

    * Prof. Dr. Vishwambhar Prasad Sati (India)

    * Prof. Dr. Yiching Song (China)

    * Prof. Dr. Lun Yin (China)

    * Prof. Dr. Md. Sirajul Islam (Bangladesh)

    * Prof. Dr. Syed Hafizur Rahman (Bangladesh)

    * Prof. Dr. M. Aslam Ali (Bangladesh)

    * Prof. Dr. Md. Mujibor Rahman (Bangladesh)

    * Dr. Shahidul Islam (Bangladesh)

    * Prof. Dr. Dragan Čomić (Bosnia & Herzegovina)

    * Dr. Dragojla Golub (Bosnia & Herzegovina)

    * Dr. Vesna Rajčević (Bosnia & Herzegovina)

    * Dr. Muhamed Katica (Bosnia & Herzegovina)

    * Dr. Grujica Vico (Bosnia & Herzegovina)

    * Dr. Vesna Tunguz (Bosnia & Herzegovina)

    * Prof. Dr. Branka Ljevnaić-Mašić (Serbia)

    * Dr. Nikola Boskovic (Serbia)

    * Prof. Dr. Afrim Selimaj (Kosovo)

    * Dr. Om Katel (Bhutan)

    * Mr. Jiban Shrestha (Nepal)

    * Prof. Dr. Prasanthi Gunawardena (Sri Lanka)

    * Dr. Nishan Sakalasooriya (Sri Lanka)

    * Dr. T. Mathiventhan (Sri Lanka)

    * Dr. A.G. Amarasinghe (Sri Lanka)

    * Dr. Mokbul Morshed Ahmad (Thailand)

    * Dr. Juan M. Pulhin (Philippines)

    * Prof. Dr. Rose Jane J. Peras (Philippines)

    * Dr. Hildie Maria E. Nacorda (Philippines)

    * Prof. Dr. Anirudh Singh (Fiji)

    * Prof. Dr. Engin Nurlu (Turkey)

    * Prof. Dr. Kürşat Demiryürek (Turkey)

    * Izr. Prof. Dr. Matej Ogrin (Slovenia)

    * Dr. Zornitsa Stoyanova (Bulgaria)

    * Dr. Anna Karova (Bulgaria)

    * Dr. Ing. K. Berchová Bímová (Czech Republic)

    * Dr. Fauziah Shahul Hamid (Malaysia)

    * Prof. Dr. Sampson Umenne (Namibia)

    * Dr. M. Surabuddin Mondal (Ethiopia)

    * Dr. Firuza Begham Mustafa (Malaysia)

    * Dr. Safiah Yusmah M. Yusoff (Malaysia)

    * Dr. Chandradeo Bokhoree (Mauritius)

    * Prof. Dr. Ahmed Samy Kamis (Saudi Arabia)

    * Prof. Dr. Hatem Abd El Rahman Saied Ahmed Ewea (Saudi Arabia)

    * Prof. Dr. Mohamed Elhag (Saudi Arabia)

    * Prof. Dr. Yousef Nazzal (UAE)

    * Prof. Dr. Waleed M.R. Hamza (UAE)

    * Dr. Naeema Al Hosani (UAE)

    * Dr. Moetaz El Sergany (UAE)

    * Dr. Manar Bani Mfarrej (UAE)

    * Dr. Nurzat Totubaeva (Kyrgyz Republic)

    * Dr. Eldiiar Duulatov (Kyrgyzstan Republic)

Related Articles

Go to Top