Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources

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Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources

Coordinated and published by the Grassroots Institute, the Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources (GJNR) is an international journal dedicated to the latest advancements in natural resources throughout the world. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists, social scientists, policy analysts, managers and practitioners (on all academic and professional levels) all over the world to promote, discuss and share various new issues and developments in different arenas of natural resources.


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M – 00248Research Article

Detection of Land Use Land Cover Changes Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques in a Secondary City in Bangladesh

Md. Lutfor Rahman1, Syed Hafizur Rahman*2

1Department of Environmental Sciences, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka-1342, Bangladesh.

Email: | ORCID:

2Professor, Department of Environmental Sciences, Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka-1342, Bangladesh.

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*Corresponding author

Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 4(3): 132-146. Doi:

Received: 13 June 2021

Reviewed: 30 June 2021

Provisionally Accepted: 05 July 2021

Revised: 21 July 2021

Finally Accepted: 28 July 2021

Published: 30 September 2021


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This study aims at classifying land use land cover (LULC) patterns and detect changes in a 'secondary city' (Savar Upazila) in Bangladesh for 30 years i.e., from 1990 to 2020. Two distinct sets of Landsat satellite imagery, such as Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) 1990 and Landsat 7 ETM+ 2020, were collected from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) website. Using ArcMap 10.3, the maximum likelihood algorithm was used to perform a supervised classification methodology. The error matrix and Kappa Kat were done to measure the mapping accuracy. Both images were classified into six separate classes: Cropland, Barren land, Built-up area, Vegetation, Waterbody, and Wetlands. From 1990 to 2020, Cropland, Barren land, Waterbody, and Wetlands have been decreased by 30.63%, 11.26%, 23.54%, and 21.89%, respectively. At the same time, the Built-up area and Vegetation have been increased by 161.16% and 5.77%, respectively. The research revealed that unplanned urbanization had been practiced in the secondary city indicated by the decreases in Cropland, Barren land, Wetland, and Waterbody, which also showed direct threats to food security and freshwater scarcity. An increase in Vegetation (mostly homestead vegetation) indicates some environment awareness programs that encourage people to maintain homestead and artificial gardens. The study argues for the sustainable planning of a secondary city for a developing country's future development.


LULC; Savar City; Urbanization; Spatial changes; ArcGIS


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Harvard Style

Rahman, M.L. and Rahman, S.H. (2021). Detection of Land Use Land Cover Changes Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques in a Secondary City in Bangladesh. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 4(3): 132-146. Doi:

APA Style

Rahman, M.L., & Rahman, S.H. (2021). Detection of Land Use Land Cover Changes Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques in a Secondary City in Bangladesh. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 4(3), 132-146.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rahman, Md. Lutfor, Rahman, Syed Hafizur. 2021. “Detection of Land Use Land Cover Changes Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques in a Secondary City in Bangladesh”. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 4 no. 3: 132-146.

ACS Style

Rahman M.L., Rahman S.H. Detection of Land Use Land Cover Changes Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques in a Secondary City in Bangladesh. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 2021, 4 (3), 132-146.

AAA Style

Rahman, Md. Lutfor, Syed Hafizur Rahman. 2021. “Detection of Land Use Land Cover Changes Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques in a Secondary City in Bangladesh”. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 4 (3): 132-146.

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