Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources

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Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources

Coordinated and published by the Grassroots Institute, the Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources (GJNR) is an international journal dedicated to the latest advancements in natural resources throughout the world. The goal of this journal is to provide a platform for scientists, social scientists, policy analysts, managers and practitioners (on all academic and professional levels) all over the world to promote, discuss and share various new issues and developments in different arenas of natural resources.


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M – 00242Research Article

Agroforestry Practices for Climate Change Adaptation and its Contribution to Farmers’ Income

Raju Prasad Bhandari1, Rajeev Joshi*2, Deepa Paudel3

1Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry, Pokhara Campus, Post Box No. 43, Hariyo Kharka-15, Pokhara, Gandaki province, Nepal. Email: | ORCID: 0000-0001-6749-2490

2Forest Research Institute (Deemed to be) University, Dehradun-248195, Uttarakhand, India; Faculty of Forestry, Amity Global Education (Lord Buddha College), CTEVT, Tokha -11, Kathmandu-44600, Nepal.

Email: | ORCID: 0000-0003-1106-9911

3Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry, Pokhara Campus, Post Box No. 43, Hariyo Kharka- 15, Pokhara, Gandaki province, Nepal. Email: | ORCID: 0000-0002-6447-1026

*Corresponding author

Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 4(3): 42-51. Doi:

Received: 24 June 2021

Reviewed: 18 July 2021

Provisionally Accepted: 24 July 2021

Revised: 03 August 2021

Finally Accepted: 12 August 2021

Published: 30 September 2021


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Agroforestry practices offer a unique opportunity to address climate change impacts while securing the livelihoods of the rural communities. This study was carried out in Tillotama municipality of Rupandehi district, Nepal. Agroforestry system practices at the study site were identified through reconnaissance survey and discussions with ward officials. With 10% sampling intensity, purposive sampling was adopted for the study using the structured questionnaire, key informant interview, and field observation. For mean comparison, one-way ANOVA and Least Significant Difference (LSD) as post-hoc tests were carried out. Local communities were adopting eight different types of agroforestry practices under four agroforestry systems, namely agri-silvicultural, silvo-pastoral, agro-silvopastoral and silvi-fishery. The agroforestry system shared up to 50.54% of total households’ income, in which income from agriculture was the highest. Agroforestry income was dependent on the economic status of the households. Change in cropping calendar was found as a major adaptation strategy. Scaling up of agroforestry system and commercialization of agroforestry products were recommended.


Adaptation; Agroforestry; Climate change; Impacts; Income.


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Harvard Style

Bhandari, R.P., Joshi, R. and Paudel, D. (2021). Agroforestry Practices for Climate Change Adaptation and its Contribution to Farmers’ Income. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 4(3): 42-51. Doi:

APA Style

Bhandari, R.P., Joshi, R., & Paudel, D. (2021). Agroforestry Practices for Climate Change Adaptation and its Contribution to Farmers’ Income. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 4(3), 42-51.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bhandari, Raju Prasad, Joshi, Rajeev, Paudel, Deepa. 2021. “Agroforestry Practices for Climate Change Adaptation and its Contribution to Farmers’ Income”. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 4 no. 3: 42-51.

ACS Style

Bhandari R.P., Joshi R., Paudel, D. Agroforestry Practices for Climate Change Adaptation and its Contribution to Farmers’ Income. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 2021, 4 (3), 42-51.

AAA Style

Bhandari, Raju Prasad, Rajeev Joshi and Deepa Paudel. 2021. “Agroforestry Practices for Climate Change Adaptation and its Contribution to Farmers’ Income”. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 4 (3): 42-51.

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