Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources

(ISSN:2581-6853; CODEN: GJNRA9; DOI: 10.33002/nr2581.6853) is an international, scientific double blind peer-reviewed open access journal published 3 times a year online by The Grassroots Institute.

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M – 00202 Research Article

Water Scarcity, Seasonal Variation and Social Conflict in Mountain Regions of Bangladesh

Sheeladitya Chakma1, Md. Nuralam Hossain*2, Md. Kamrul Islam3, Md. Mohitul Hossain4, Md. Nazirul Islam Sarker5

1School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.


2School of Environment and Ecology, Chongqing University, Chongqing, China. Email:

3USAID-Supported Nature and Life Project, Community Development Center (CODEC), Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh.


4School of Biological Sciences, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia. Email:

5School of Political Science and Public Administration, Neijiang Normal University, Neijiang, China.


*Corresponding Author ǀ ORCID: 0000-0003-0029-9367

Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 4(1): 62-79. Doi:

Received: 17 January 2021

Reviewed: 23 February 2021

Provisionally Accepted: 28 February 2021

Revised: 16 March 2021

Finally Accepted: 18 March 2021

Published: 25 March 2021


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The study intends to assess water scarcity, seasonal variations, and social conflicts through a cross sectional study based on people's perceptions. A well-structured questionnaire coupled with an interview schedule was used for data collection from the 60 households living in the mountainous two villages at Waga union of Kaptai Upazila under Rangamati District, Bangladesh. The study employed a multi-stage random sampling technique. The analysis reveals that 90% of respondents in Sapchari Monpara village mostly rely on spring for water, while 83% of respondents in Debotachari village depend on tube-wells. The study also shows that 80% of the respondents have experienced water scarcity in domestic use, while 90% of respondents have reported short duration of the rainy season causes water scarcity. More than 80% of respondents believe that shifting cultivation in upland catchments causes water quality degradation in the study villages. Most of the respondents obtain water easily in a monsoon at Sapchari Monpara, while others get from tube-wells and traditional wells in all seasons. About (87%) of respondents mention that forest conservation around the water sources can increase water availability.


Water shortage; People's perception; Water harvesting; Catchment area

Harvard Style

Chakma, S., Hossain, M.N., Islam, M.K., Hossain, M.M. and Sarker, M.N.I. (2021). Water Scarcity, Seasonal Variation and Social Conflict in Mountain Regions of Bangladesh. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 4(1): 62-79. Doi:

APA Style

Chakma, S., Hossain, M. N., Islam, M. K., Hossain, M. M., & Sarker, M. N. I. (2021). Water Scarcity, Seasonal Variation and Social Conflict in Mountain Regions of Bangladesh. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 4(1), 62-79.

ACS Style

Chakma S., Hossain M. N., Islam M. K., Hossain M. M., Sarker M. N. I. Water Scarcity, Seasonal Variation and Social Conflict in Mountain Regions of Bangladesh. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 2021, 4(1), 62-79.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chakma, Sheeladitya, Hossain, Md. Nuralam, Islam, Md. Kamrul, Hossain, Md. Mohitul, Sarker, Md. Nazirul Islam. 2021. “Water Scarcity, Seasonal Variation and Social Conflict in Mountain Regions of Bangladesh”. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 4 no. 1: 62-79.

AAA Style

Chakma, Sheeladitya, Md. Nuralam Hossain, Md. Kamrul Islam, Md. Mohitul Hossain and Md. Nazirul Islam Sarker. 2021. “Water Scarcity, Seasonal Variation and Social Conflict in Mountain Regions of Bangladesh”. Grassroots Journal of Natural Resources, 4 (1): 62-79.

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